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Onychomycosis affects about 78% of the North American population1 and having significant social, psychologic, health, and occupational effects3 , is more than a cosmetic issue2 , it is a clinical and economic problem. However, with three new, orally effective, antifungal agents, we have for the first time effective treatment that can provide benefit for a high percentage of patients. This review examines some of the areas of uncertainty and controversy.
Recurrence and relapse in onychomycosis
There is a difference between "re-infection" and "relapse". Relapse, or "delayed failure" refers to recurrence of the original infection that was clinically and mycologically cured at one time-point following therapy. Reinfection is a new infection resulting from exposure to a fungus in shoes, floors or fomites. In many cases when there is a recurrence of infection, it may be difficult to distinguish between relapse and reinfection.4 Some have suggested that the recurrence of toenail onychomycosis, once complete clinical and mycological cure has occurred, is more likely to be due to relapse if it has developed within 18 months of starting oral antifungal therapy4, and reinfection when toenail onychomycosis recurs 18 months or more beyond the start of therapy.4 The time-point of 18 months is an arbitrary choice; others have suggested 24 months from the start of therapy. It should be kept in mind that the terms relapse and recurrence have been used interchangeably in the literature.
Dermatophytoma complications may be a leading cause of treatment failure
In a significant number of cases of dermatophyte onychomycosis, a dense white linear area or a round white area is seen. When the overlying nail is cut back, a densely packed clump of thick walled, somewhat abnormal looking dermatophyte hyphae is revealed. It is probable that antifungal drug penetration into such lesions does not achieve adequate concentrations and nail removal is necessary in order for antifungal drugs to prove effective. The dermatophytoma is not particularly adherent and can be readily removed.5
What roles do increasing age, disease duration or ethnic origin play in re-infection or relapse?
Older people have a higher prevalence of nail disease. They also respond less well to treatment,6,7 as do patients with more severe nail involvement.6 Since nail growth slows with increasing age, and local trauma increases, the elderly are more likely to develop nail infections and more likely to have reinfections. The decrease in T cell function associated with aging may be the primary reason for the increased recurrence rates8, although patients with long-standing onychomycosis may have nails that grow relatively more slowly compared to the usual growth rates of nails in those of a similar age and gender.4 Because the newer antifungal drugs require new growth of nail to replace the old infected portions, growth of nail is a necessary feature to effect a cure. Therefore, a long disease duration and a slow rate of nail outgrowth are associated with a poorer response to treatment with the new oral antifungal agents. Another reason that disease duration and increasing age may impede cure rates, is the fact that the infections may become more complicated and other non-dermatophyte moulds and/or yeasts and/or bacteria may become secondary pathogens.9 There is no evidence for ethnic differences in re-infection or relapse rates.4,6,7,10
In onychomycoses, what is the incidence of recurrence and relapse following treatment with itraconazole or terbinafine?
Currently, it is not possible to distinguish between relapse and reinfection.4,6 Used in their currently recommended regimen, until recently there was thought to be no clear difference between the drugs.6 However, in the L.I.ON. double-blind, double-dummy study, continuous terbinafine for 12 weeks and 16 weeks resulted in statistically significantly superior mycological and clinical cure rates as compared to intermittent itraconazole given for one in every four weeks for 12 and 16 weeks.11 Estimated rates of recurrence/relapse following treatment with itraconazole or terbinafine range from 15-30% depending on the patient population under study.2,7,10,12 Following pulse therapy with itraconazole for toenail onychomycosis, after 1 year, the incidence of relapse/ recurrences is on average 10% based on a number of clinical trials, including more than 1300 patients treated with 3 pulses for toenail onychomycosis.7 There is relatively little information on the rate of recurrence/relapse of toenail onychomycosis in special populations treated with the newer antifungal agents.4
Is there evidence of resistance emerging to itraconazole, terbinafine, fluconazole or griseofulvin?
|What is the importance or
significance of agents being fungicidal rather than fungistatic?
Are moulds increasing?
Dermatophytes are the prime pathogens in onychomycosis.4 Non-dermatophyte moulds may occur from time to time, but are generally not a problem and their appearance is generally an incidental finding as a laboratory contaminant.9 In young adults and adults up to 65 years of age, non-dermatophyte moulds may be more likely to be saprophytes than true invaders, although in some cases they do cause an invasive toenail infection. In patients older than 65, nail growth declines further and non-dermatophytic moulds may find it easier to penetrate the nail unit and cause invasive nailplate infection.7 If this hypothesis is correct, we will see more non-dermatophyte infections as the average age of the population increases.7 The incidence of moulds is significantly higher in the tropics and moulds are more likely in patients returned from the tropics.8
Do some individuals have an "inherited predisposition" to severe forms of fungal infections?
Fungal infections of the feet and toenails are transmitted via infected fungal elements or arthrocondidia. People who are at highest risk include those who have sweaty feet, and individuals such as army recruits, athletes, etc. who walk over surfaces which are heavily contaminated with fungus, such as in gyms and locker rooms. A genetic predisposition may explain why some people who are exposed get an infection and others don't.4,9 There is some evidence to suggest that atopic patients may have a more chronic form of fungal infection.7 However, this observation has not been substantiated.
Treatment of Onychomycoses of the toenails
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